Ubuntu, and in fact any debian as far as I’m aware has the the
command to manage different versions of installed software. Currently when installing golang ubuntu will default to 1.6, but the repository contains 1.7 as well as package golang-1.7. To allow switching between the versions with the builtin system it can be setup via
$ update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/go go /usr/lib/go-1.7/bin/go 1
Where 1 is the priority, when using auto setup.
$ update-alternatives --config go
Now allows switching between the favorite go version.